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How to Prevent The human from adverse Monera Members

Today, I will give a material about the microbiology about how to prevent pathogenic bacteria that are harmful to our bodies.
Bacterial pathogens as members of Monera is very detrimental to living beings, especially humans, livestock, and crops. To prevent or reduce the danger posed by pathogenic bacteria, humans take the following ways.

Vaccination

Vaccination is a way of disease prevention by providing vaccines, ie bacteria that have been weakened. The vaccine is injected into humans and animals body to provide immunity against certain diseases. Vaccines in human or animal body encourage the formation of antibodies in the blood. If at any time, active bacteria possessed the body,the bacteria will be resisted or inhibited by substances antibody.

Sterilization

Sterilization is the destruction of all life forms, for example in food preservation.Sterilization is done by heating at 121 ° C for 15 minutes with pressure. Usually done in an autoclave or pressure cooker. Sterilization will kill bacteria, spores, and other organisms. In microbial studies, sterilization is also required to obtain pure cultures. Pure culture is a culture that consists of only one microbial species or the result of a multiplication of microbial cells are grown on artificial medium.
To improve the results of sterilization, then the tool which used for sterilization must be sterilized. Sterilization of tools or mediums can be done physically (eg by heating,ultraviolet, and X-rays), mechanically (with filtering), and chemically (with disinfectant).

Warming is a common way in the process of sterilization. Some ways of heating is usually done for sterilization as follows.
  1. Sterilization with blazing. This is for sterilization platinum needle, loop, and so on. The trick is to burn the tools mentioned above methylated spirit lamp to incandescence.
  2. Sterilization with dry air. The Equipment which used to this way is hot water sterilizer. This method is used for sterilization of equipment and materials such as glass, fabrics, and cotton. Temperatures used 170 ° C-180 ° C with a minimum time is 2 hours.
  3. Sterilization with steam. This method is used for sterilization of materials containing liquids, such as culture medium. The tool which used is Arnold steam sterilizer. Most microbes die at a temperature of 100 ° C.
  4. Sterilization with steam pressure. This technique uses an autoclave with a pressure of 2 atm and the temperature is 121 ° C for 30 minutes.

In addition to heating, sterilization can also be done by filtering. Sterilization by filtration is used for materials that are not heat resistant (eg blood serum and toxin). The Filters which used is the filter bacteria, for example Berkeled filters, Chamberland filters, and Selzt filter.

Pasteurization

Pasteurization made ​​to sterilize materials that are not high heat-resistant with the goal of killing the bacteria that exist in it. For example the preservation of milk, premises heating 60 ° C for 30 minutes and then cooled. Once cool, heated again until it reaches a temperature of 60 ° C. This activity is carried out until 3 or four times. Pasteurization will kill pathogenic bacteria, but non-pathogenic bacteria remain alive so that food is not sterile.


Food Preservation

Preserved foods need to overcome the activity of bacteria that can spoil food and cause toxicity. Food preservation can be done traditionally, such as drying, curing, pickling,salting, and Sweeting (Make food to very sweet).
The principle of Preservation is to provide an environment that is  not ideal for bacterial life.With this treatment, the concentration of bacterial solution in the external environment more dense so it can happen plasmolysis and bacteria will die from lack of water. Food preservation can also be done in the conventional example by sterilization,pasteurization, freezing, refrigeration, using chemicals, as well as with radiation. Cool environment causing bacteria inactive. Therefore, if the food removed from the cooling, the presence of bacterial activity will be indicated immediately.


That's all, I hope this material may useful.
Hendra Yulisman
Hendra Yulisman Alumni LPDP PK 41 - Catureka Mandala. Seorang Pengajar yang sedang Belajar. Softcore gamer. Sangat tertarik dengan IT, Mikrobiologi dan Media Pembelajaran.

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